Dissociative identity disorder (DID)Edit
Dissociative disorders rely on the lack of capacity for the selective control of consciousness. DID is considered psychogenic, as closely associated in time with traumatic events, trauma, a history of childhood crises associated with death or sexual abuse, difficult and unbearable problems or disturbed connections with other people. Identity disorders relate to the disintegration of ego functions.
The concept of conversion is derived from the theories of Sigmund Freud and refers to the unpleasant feelings of anxiety and fear, resulting from the current life situation of the patient. In the case of dissociative disorders negative emotional state, caused by conflicts or problems, which the body can not solve, is somehow transformed into a symptom. This happens in a similar way as in the case somatoform disorders.
Dissociative identity disorder is one of the most controversial psychiatric disorders, with no clear consensus on diagnostic criteria or treatment. Research on treatment efficiency has been concerned primarily with clinical approaches and case studies. Dissociative symptoms range from common lapses in attention, becoming distracted by something else, and daydreaming, to pathological dissociative disorders. No systematic, empirically supported definition of "dissociation" exists. It is not the same as schizophrenia.
A person suffering from this type of disorder manifests with at least two separate complete identity systems. Each of these systems has a different emotional and cognitive processes, together forming a single personality. The transition from one to the other identity may take from a few minutes to a few years.
How does it work in practice? A person suffering from dissociative identity disorder has the personality
of the host, that is, his personality original and one or several other identities. The other identities are usually quite different from the original. In other identities are usually revealed needs and emotions that a person suppresses in the host personality. Particularly interesting part is that the other identities know about each other and they know the identity of the host, yet the host often is not aware of the sub-personalities.
People who are diagnosed with multiple personalities often complain about memory gaps.
Imagine, for example, that when you came back from work, you’ve refueled your car to the full. After returning home, you did not use the car. The next day, when you start the car in the morning, you realize that the gas tank is almost empty. How it's possible? No one else drove your car, you can not remember the evening you've gone out somewhere. The situation seems impossible, right? But in the case of people with DID personality, such situations are not uncommon.
Often that kind of memory gaps is explained during the session of hypnosis. At the time of the transition to a different identity, it happens that not only the behavior is changing, but often also the name and tone of patient's voice.
The causes of dissociative disorders
Dissociative disorders have been qualified to the group of neurotic anxiety disorders. Its source is considered to lay in traumatic, highly stressful life events that the person unwittingly begins to displace from their consciousness. This leads to the splitting of mental functions. Dissociative disorders can, therefore, be considered as certain defense mechanisms triggering in response to severe stress.